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What is nonwoven fabric?
- Jun 03, 2017 -

What is nonwoven fabric?


Nonwoven fabrics, commonly referred to as non-woven fabrics, are fabrics made from fibers, yarns, or filaments that are bonded or joined together in mechanical, chemical or physical ways.

Classification of nonwoven fabrics

According to its manufacturing principles and methods, broadly divided into the following categories:

1. resin bonded nonwoven fabric

The film made of synthetic fiber net by carding machine or carding machine, need to overlap thickness, followed by heating to the synthetic resin softening bond or immersed in solution to form fibres.

2. needle punched nonwoven fabric

There are two kinds of spunlaced and acupuncture: acupuncture is the use of thousands of pieces of the special structure of the hook, through the fiber web, by repeated puncture, make the fiber up and down repeatedly transfer each other to form a dense tangle of nonwoven fabric.

3. nonwoven fabric

At the same time the formation of filaments ejected from the spinning head in synthetic solution, using static and high pressure air flow, the filaments irregularly haphazardly strewn on metal curtain, and then through the heat roller heat setting, can be bonded into filament nonwoven fabric.

4. stitched nonwoven fabric

A multi needle sewing machine is used to sew the fiber web together to form a compact non-woven fabric.

Structure of nonwoven fabric

There is a big difference between nonwoven fabrics and traditional fabrics. The basic requirements of nonwoven fabric technology is to avoid or reduce the formation of fiber yarn, fiber aggregate such the yarn into some geometric structures, but let a single fiber distribution of fiber fiber network that formed after assembly. Typical nonwoven fabrics are formed from a network of fibers. At the same time, in order to further increase its strength and achieve structural stability, the fiber network must be strengthened by applying adhesives, thermal bonding, fiber and fiber entanglement, and external yarn entanglement. Therefore, the structure of most nonwoven fabrics is the basic structure composed of fiber mesh and reinforcement system.

(1) typical structure of fiber web

The fabric of the fabric refers to the arrangement of fibers and the structure of the fabric, which can be called the main structure of the nonwoven fabric. Usually depends on the way in which the mesh is formed. The structure of general fiber networks can be divided into ordered structure and disordered arrangement structure. According to the arrangement and direction of the fibers, the ordered arrangement can be divided into fibrous webs arranged along the longitudinal direction, fibers arranged crosswise, fiber webs and fiber intersecting webs. A disordered arrangement is a fabric of tangled, randomly arranged fibers. But whether in order or out of order, it shows only the orientation of most fibers in the fabric, not all fibers. Fiber web structure can affect some properties of nonwoven fabrics, such as anisotropy, strength, elongation, etc..

(two) reinforced structure;

The reinforcement structure is a kind of auxiliary structure relative to the main structure of the mesh, which depends on the method of fiber mesh consolidation. Typical nonwoven fabric reinforcement structures can be divided into the following three categories.

A structure in which 1. fibers are reinforced by some fibers

Reinforced structures consisting of partially fiber reinforced structures consisting of two types reinforced by fiber entanglement and structures strengthened with fiber coils.

(1) entanglement reinforcement: the use of mechanical methods, such as needling and spunlace, makes the fiber net to be consolidated and stabilized by entanglement between its own fibers. Acupuncture and spunlace in a small area, fiber net within fiber from the horizontal and vertical displacement and tangles, web reinforcement and to make the overall stable, if the change in quantity and area of spunlaced needles or needle arrangement density, pressure and support parameters of net curtain conveying speed, also can obtain different structure or surface characteristics, different density of nonwoven fabric.

(2) stitch reinforcement: the use of slot needle stitch in the process from the web extraction part of fiber bundles, knitting coil shaped geometric structure formed by these rules make it part of fiber bundles, fiber knitting did not participate in the fiber web by the coil structure is stable, so that the fiber network to be reinforced, the nonwoven the front is very similar to the appearance of fabric knitted fabric.

A structure reinforced with 2. fiber webs plus yarns

By the external structure of yarn reinforcement reinforcement, in addition to the yarn in the warp coil structure stitch knitting machine made fiber net feeding was also fed into the form, also can be introduced in fiber yarn net along the warp and weft direction of cross laying, or by parallel placement after the stable overall structure adhesive.

The 3. fiber web is reinforced by bonding action

A fabric reinforced by adhesive action, usually consisting of two conditions, one is a web of fibers reinforced by adhesive, and the other is reinforced by heating, softening, and fusing fibers in the fiber web.

Fiber web reinforcement by adhesives, refers to the impregnation, spraying, coating and other ways to introduce adhesives, and to strengthen the fiber network. This structure used to account for a considerable proportion of nonwoven fabrics. According to the type of adhesive and the mode of application, the structure of this kind of nonwoven fabric can be divided into point bonding structure, film bonding structure and mass bonding structure.

Fiber mesh reinforcement structure and model sketch. Fiber web is reinforced by hot sticky joint. It is a structure that uses hot-melt fiber or powder to melt and glue fiber to reinforce forming structure. The resultant structure is similar to that obtained by the adhesive reinforcement, and can also be divided into spot bonding and mass like bonding structures.

Hot melt bonding of non-woven fabrics can also be done by hot rolling of a fiber web containing thermoplastic fibers.

Features of nonwoven fabrics

Most of the fibers in the nonwoven fabric are arranged in disorder and exhibit a porous structure, which has the following characteristics:

(1) it has certain air permeability, filtration and heat preservation, and has strong water absorption and adsorbability.

(2) wide range of raw materials, unrestricted. Almost every known textile fiber raw material can be used for nonwovens production, whether it is natural fiber, chemical fiber or fiber under their feet, or difficult to use the traditional textile processing method of asbestos fiber, glass fiber, carbon fiber, graphite fiber, metal fiber or heat-resistant aramid, all can be processed in nonwovens production equipment.

(3) short process flow, high labor productivity and low cost. The production of general nonwovens can only be carried out on a continuous production line. The process is short and is not limited by the speed of spinning and weaving. Therefore, the production speed is greatly improved.

(4) product stability is good. Because of the simple process, easy to control, and wide variety of raw materials, the difference between batches of nonwovens (the difference between each batch) is very small.

(5) the thickness of the product can be adjusted at random. Besides the material texture, the shape and shape index of nonwoven fabrics are similar to those of woven fabrics. But its thickness and weight are generally 100g/m2 line, lower than this value is thin, higher than this value for the thick type. There are also less than 75/m2 is called thin, 75 ~ 150g/m2 is called medium thickness type, larger than 150g/m2 is called thick type.

Main applications of nonwoven fabrics

1. nonwovens for industrial use

Nonwovens have been used more and more widely in industry. For automotive interior trim, seat cover, door, door, roof cover, soft liner liners and composite materials in automotive industry.

2. nonwovens for clothing

Mainly used for lining, interlining, disposable pants, protective clothing, shoulder pads, work clothes, clothing labels etc..

3. nonwovens for medical and health care

Baby diapers, baby diaper, pants, surgical gowns, hats, masks, slippers, shoes, cloth, sanitary towel, medical injury with sheets, clothing, clothing, masks, disinfection and isolation of wet towel, wrap cloth, bandage etc..

4. other applications

The utility model can be widely used for household articles, decorative articles, shoes materials and leather bags, such as rags, wipes, tea clothes, packing bags, hanging curtains, carpets, sheets, artificial leather, cloth and furniture, etc..


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